Takarazuka: Sexual government and you can popular community inside the progressive The japanese, Berkeley and you can Los angeles : College or university off California Press

17. In battle, government entities marketed rustic hairstyles and you can developments for everybody its victims; for females, brief, bowl-molded haircuts and baggy, high-waisted monpe shorts (aren’t used regarding the country side) were encouraged since body gestures of austerity, modesty and you may household top service to the total combat work. Having a description and you can data off wartime shojo depictions from inside the shojo zasshi, get a hold of Imada Erika, 2007, pp. 57–83. Having meanings out-of wartime trends and you can hairdos having mature people, select Wakakuwa, 2000 Wakakuwa, Midori . 2000 . Senso ga tsukuru joseizo: Dai niji sekai taisenka zero Nihon josei doin zero shikakuteki puropaganda, Tokyo : Chikuma gakugei bunko . [Yahoo Beginner] and you will Atkins, 2005 Atkins, Jacqueline . 2005 . “ Luxury is the enemy: Styles and you will textiles from inside the wartime Japan, in the Jacqueline Atkins ”. When you look at the Using propaganda: Textiles towards household front in the Japan, Britain, in addition to Us, 1931–1945, 157 – 169 . The Retreat and you may London : Yale School Drive . [Yahoo College student] .

18. Tanabe, ‘Shojo shosetsu ni muchu datta koro’, out of Bara no kobeya yori, reprinted inside the Honda, 1991 Honda, Masuko . 1991 . “ Senjika zero shojo zasshi, for the Otsuka Eiji ”. Inside Shojo zasshi ron, Tokyo : Tokyo shoseki . [Yahoo Pupil] , pp. 36–37.

19. Story out of Young Yard, the translated Japanese title out of Louisa Could possibly get Alcott’s Little Ladies. The fresh identity Wakakusa Monogatari was accompanied if the movie was revealed in the The japanese inside 1934; before composed translations and you can adaptations of Alcott’s antique got different headings.

20. Other forms out of shojo entertainment, namely brand new Takarazuka Revue, will also have given a model for the right boy with its particular new danso no reijin[beautiful woman in male clothing], new otokoyaku. Takarazuka besides cultivated a dedicated shojo group of followers from wartime and postwar ages, but is actually looked regularly in shojo zasshi, particularly Shojo no tomo. For a conclusion and historic/anthropological analysis of Takarazuka Revue, pick Robertson, 1998 Robertson, Jennifer . 1998 . [Crossref] , [Bing Beginner] .

21. Dating back the fresh 1910s, instructors and you may ethical supporters regarded as movie theatres since reproduction grounds for the fresh new furyo, or because the furyo’s hunting good reasons for their jogakusei sufferers. Particular girls’ universities placed strict requirements on the children who planned to sit in flick theatres, otherwise blocked attendance outright. Find Inagaki, 2007 Inagaki, Kyoko . 2007 . Jogakko so you’re able to jogakusei: kyoyo, tashinami, modan bunka, Tokyo : Chuo koron shinsha . [Google Pupil] , pp. 142–44.

Note: since the postcard respondent (or the publisher) put another spelling (Wakagusa in lieu of Wakakusa), the product quality spelling and enunciation is Wakakusa

twenty-two. The latest romantic overtones out of discussing a keen umbrella has actually prewar and you can very early wartime precedents. Look for Kawabata Yasunari’s short story, ‘Amagasa’ (Umbrella) out-of 1932, which has a romantically charged scene out-of a couple children discussing a keen umbrella. My personal thanks to The month of january Bardsley for mentioning which union.

23 www.datingmentor.org/kasidie-review. Look for ‘Civilizing “Degenerate” Students’, during the Ambaras, 2006 Ambaras, David . 2006 . Bad youthfulness: Juvenile delinquency together with politics off day to day life during the progressive Japan, Berkeley and you can Los angeles : School of California Force . [Bing Pupil] , pp. 66–96.

twenty-four. Brand new payment transform is short for numbers out-of 1946–50 as opposed to 1936–40 (Lunden, 1953 Lunden, Walter An effective. 1953 . Juvenile delinquency for the The japanese. Pre-conflict, war, and you can blog post-battle ages . The fresh new Diary from Unlawful Rules, Criminology, and you may Cops Science, 44(4): 428 – 432 . November-December [Crossref] , [Google College student] , p. 430).

The actual only real exception to this rule on gender-segregated program regarding blog post-number one studies in the Meiji period towards wartime months try this new coeducational Tokyo Music College or university [Tokyo ongaku gakko]

eight. We evaluate these depictions in detail throughout the wartime part from inside the my dissertation toward shojo zasshi:‘All of the Women’s a period: Representations off Womanliness and you can Puberty during the Japanese Girls’ Publications, 1930s-1960s’ (PhD Dissertation, Stanford College or university, 2008).

16. Discover Inagaki, 2007 Inagaki, Kyoko . 2007 . Jogakko to help you jogakusei: kyoyo, tashinami, modan bunka, Tokyo : Chuo koron shinsha . [Bing Student] , p. 207.

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